This appears to be Mar-Vell between issue 18 of his original series and the end of the Kree Skrull war.
His flashback over his life to that point does include a scene of him in his red/blue uniform with nega bands carrying Carol away from the exploding Kree Psyche Magnatron device that empowered her.
As to him not recognizing Carol, yeah one would think he would have, but her physique/hair style were different from what he knew. Although as they spoke in that prison cell he did start to comment that she reminded him of someone....
Her hairstyle, yes, but her physique and especially her face really aren't any different.