What? Superman variants?
I would the best candidates based on available evidence would point to Superman as being a strong *maybe*, Mr Majestic as he too has survived one or two similar scale blasts. Both have the proven feats and invulnerability to say they could take the hit, maybe not left in great shape from such a blast no but they could well take it and live...
Captain Marvel/Black Adam too have the additional Mystical edge to be very serious contenders.
Moores version Of Supreme should take it square.
Superboy-Prime no problem.
Mon-el probobly fares about as well as Superman more or less given they have been clearly said to share the same powerlevel and Daxamites have a solid history.
I don't see anything to say Supreme(original), apollo, Nefaria, Icon, Sentry, Hyperion or Gladiator could take it however.
The Death Star ray actually displace part of its target at hyperspace speed, resolting in its disintegration. I see no reason why would a superclone resist that.
IMO those who can resist it would be the one who control their own molecules.
I don't think your "Superman should resist the damage; What was the damage?" approach is very credible to assess these things.